Various approaches to the study of public administration

Various approaches related to the study of public administration. These can be classified in many respects. From one point of view, they can be classified into idealistic approach and secondly to sensory approach. The idealistic approach emphasizes what public administration should be like. There are talks of ideal in this. In contrast, the real administrative position is emphasized by the cognizant approach. It is clear that this classification has been done from the point of view of value and facts. The idealistic approach is valueistic while the empirical approach is only related to the element. Many of the classification related to the approach is based on the fact that the scholar concerned emphasizes something. Under public administration, the Various approaches public administration following terms are used –

1. Philosophical Approach

2. Legal Approach

3. Historical Approach

4. The Case Method Approach

5. Institutional Approach

6. Behavioural Approach

7. Psychological Approach

8. Bio-graphical Approach

9. Political Approach

10. Subject-matter Approach

1. Philosophical Approach

The philosophical approach is the oldest approach to the study of public administration. Philosophy in its broadest sense is the pursuit of intelligence and knowledge. Essays related to civil governance by Leviathan Lock, composed by Ganraj Hobbs, composed by Shantiparva Plato of Mahabharata. The field of philosophical approach is very wide. It covers all types of administrative processes at its periphery. The aim of this principle is to find out in administration what is present but which can change in future. How to change these changing environments must be the focus of these batons.

2. Legal Approach

The legal approach comes after the philosophical approach. But the legal approach is more ancient than the philosophical approach. This system is an approach. There is law and order in the approach. The legal approach originally permeated the European tradition. Public administration in Europe was developed to study law. Legal approach is the method of study of public administration. According to public administration, it has been divided into two parts 1. Administrative Law 2. Administrative Law has been divided into Constitutional Law. Administration is studied in administrative law. Whereas in constitutional law, the three parts of political and government are studied.

3. Historical Approach

The historical approach to the study of public administration is very ancient. The oldest public administration was studied through this medium. For example, the administration system of Ram Raj, the monarchy of Kautilya etc. In this approach, information was collected from the point of view of chronology and then it was explained. The historical approach was very popular in ancient times. The major successes of today’s administration will continue to guide the administration of tomorrow as history.

4. The Case Method Approach

The study of public administration of the individual method started around 1930 and has gained popularity since that time. The meaning of an event or a case is a description of the situation occurring in administration with all the conditions in its true context without distraction. It is a very sensitive method, as it attempts to restore the administrative realities and gives the learner the experience of the administrative system. David Waldo states that “the individual method approach is driven by the commitment of sociologist objectives and methods.” But it is influenced more by the traditional sensitivity of the humanities and by the behavioral interest of education than by research. ”The individual method is prevalent in public administration but has not yet been a major study approach. Gradually becoming popular in India. Therefore, it is necessary to be aware of its limitations. Through the first person approach, there is no success in living the life of the other person, that is, in thinking and understanding and behaving in the same way, the most important part of the second decision is related to the suffering and established. A second person cannot fully experience the pain and anxiety of a person. The other person cannot understand the pain he experiences while making the decision.

लोक प्रशासन के अध्ययन के लिए विभिन्न दृष्टिकोण

5. Institutional Approach

The institutional structural approach studies public administration in a formal manner. What is the formal structure of public institutions and what tasks have been given to them – these things are ascertained by the followers of this approach. Like the legal approaches, this is a very old approach. This is the oldest approach in the history of public administration. It is still the most popular approach in India. The biggest drawback of this approach is that it does not give an accurate knowledge of the behavioral form of an organization.

6. Behavioural Approach

Dissatisfaction with the institutional-structural approach increased, and as a result a behavioral approach was developed in the study of public administration. This approach was born in the fourth decade of this century. Its organization focused on the actual conduct and behavior of individuals and groups. This method has been described by Herbert A. Simon in his book Administrative Behavior. Public administration is also a major supporter of Robert A. Dale, Smithburg, Ricks, etc. Through this method public administration has emphasized the adoption of empirical approach. It is also called ‘social psychological’ method.

7. Psychological Approach

Traditionalist public administration scholars consider psychology a separate subject from public administration and politics. But modern public administration scholars understand the nuances of human psychology as essential for public administration studies. Those who follow this view say that administration is related to human behavior. Administrative problems can be solved by the mental state of people by their interpersonal behavior and their behavior, as psychology also studies human behavior. Hence administration or public administration is necessarily a problem of psychology. The use of psychological method in the administrative field was first started by Miss Faulette. It is quite popular in countries like America, Britain, France etc. In modern times, behaviorist thinkers are also advocates of this method.

8. Bio-graphical Approach

The life-style approach is closely related to the historical view of administration. Under this method, administration is studied as a record of the experience and work of famous or senior administrators in the past and the decisions taken by them or the implementation of policies made by them. These experience works, whether written by himself or others, have described his significant successes. Administration can be benefited by studying these administrative experiences or memoirs. Therefore it is also called memorial method. This method is more prevalent in America and Holland. Some such memoirs have been written in recent years in India, such as The Untold Story of Kaul, The Memoirs of the Civil Servant of Dharmaveer, Government Form Inside Gadgil’s Unfinished Innings by Madhav Gade Bole, The Insider of former Prime Minister Narasimha Rao, etc. .

9. Political Approach

Administration is a practical form of politics as well as a part of the political process. Hence, administration cannot be separated from the established political system in the country to meet the needs of healthy administration. Administrative problems always arise due to political problems because the administration implements or makes the decisions taken by the political executive. Thus the administrative structure functions as part of the political structure. Therefore, it can be said that administration is a political process in which the policies created and set by the political executive are implemented by the administration. John Gauss states in this context that “In our time the principle of folk also means the principle of political.

10. Subject-matter Approach

The content method is a new method in the field of public administration. Under this, general administrative principles are not studied. Special emphasis is given to the study of specific services or its programs. In many countries including India and England, this method has been used in the departments of police, education, defense, revenue determination and collection etc. These departments form the subject of study in different forms. In this, the complete content is studied as the basic basis. Problems of local administration in America are also studied by this method.

The conclusion

A question arises here. What is the best approach to the study of public administration? This question requires consideration. While considering this question, the students of public administration get swept away in the sense and get away from the truth because knowledge is true and there are many aspects of truth like diamonds which are not possible to study completely from any one approach. No one can satisfy various questions of curiosity. The same is true in relation to public administration. Therefore, the study of public administration is possible only with the coordination of Various approaches public administrations.

It is worth remembering that these approaches are not isolated and opposed to each other, but rather complement each other. Each approach has its utility in the context of the study. It is up to the ability of the study to choose the appropriate and best among these various approaches. Many scholars in India use one method of study as the criterion of learning. This situation is pathetic. It is true that in some areas one approach is more useful than the other. But the efficient use of various subject-related approaches public administration for best study depends on the ability of the learner.

59 thoughts on “Various approaches to the study of public administration

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