SCOPE OF PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION
The opinions of L.D. Whites and traditionalists, on the one hand, and those of Gullick and the school of scientific management, on the other, differ in terms of the nature and scope of Public Administration. Therefore, we must understand several perspectives on the scope of Public Administration.
Scope of Public Administration
The following are the three important perspectives on the scope of Public Administration.
1. Narrow perspective or post-record perspective.
2. Wide perspective or view of the topic.
3. Prevailing view.
1. Narrow perspective or post-record perspective –
Luther Gullick is the main exponent of this perspective. According to him, the scope of public administration is limited or limited. It is also considered as post-record view. He insists that the Public Administration deals only with those aspects of the administration that are related to the executive branch and its seven types of administrative functions.
These seven types of functions that show the scope of the Public Administration are the following:
1. “P” means planning
2. “O” means organization
3. “S” means staffing.
4. “D” means Directing.
5. “Co.” means Co-ordination.
6. “R” means Reporting
7. “B” means Budgeting
1. “P” means Planning –
Planning is the first step of public administration. that is to say, elaborate the general scheme of the things that must be done.
2. “O” means organization –
It means the establishment of the formal authority structure through which the work is subdivided, organized and coordinated for the defined objective.
3. “S” means staffing –
It means the hiring and training of staff and the maintenance of favorable working conditions for staff.
4. “D” means Directing –
It means the continuous task of making decisions and embodying them in specific and general orders and instructions, and thus guiding the company.
5. “Co” means Co-ordination –
It means interrelated the various parts of the organization, such as branches, divisions, sections of work and the elimination of overlap.
6. “R” means Reporting –
It means informing the authority to which the executive is responsible for what is happening.
7. “B” means Budgeting –
It means accounting, tax planning and control.
POSDCORB The perspective on the scope of public administration is limited and limited. He highlighted the tools of the Public Administration. It does not show the substance of the administration. It is a technique oriented perspective, not a theme oriented.
2. Broad perspective or subject-oriented perspective: –
Prof. Woodrow Wilson, L D While they are leading exponents of this perspective. They have adopted a very broad approach to the scope of Public Administration.
According to them
1. The Public Administration covers the three branches of government. Legislative, Executive and Judicial and their interrelation. The legislative body makes the laws, the executive body of the government implements the laws. And the government judicial body interprets the laws. There is an interrelation between these three organs.
2. The scope of public administration is like a cooperative group. It consists of everyone, from class one officers to class four employees.
3. Public administration is part of the political process. It has an important role in the formulation of public policies at all levels, from national to grassroots. It is closely associated with numerous private groups and individuals in providing services to the community. It has been influenced in recent years by the approach of human relationships.
3. Prevailing view.
The prevailing view divides the scope of the Public Administration into two parts.
1) Administrative theory
2) Applied administration
1. Administrative theory –
It includes the following aspects.
a) Organizational theory –
The structure, organization, functions and methods of all types of public authority dedicated to the administration, whether national, regional or local and executive.
b) Behavior –
The functions of the administrative authorities and the various appropriate methods for the different types of functions. The various forms of administration control.
c) Personal public administration –
Problems related to staff, p. recruitment, training, promotion, retirement, etc. and problems related to planning, research, information and public relations services.
2. Applied administration –
It includes the following aspects: –
a) Political functions –
It includes the executive – legislative relationship, the administrative activities of the cabinet, the minister and the permanent official relationship.
b) Legislative function –
It includes delegated legislation and the preparatory work done by the officials in relation to the elaboration of the bills.
c) Financial functions –
It includes total financial administration from budget preparation to execution, accounting and auditing, etc.
d) Defense – Functions
It is related to the military administration.
e) Educational function –
It includes functions related to the educational administration.
f) Social welfare administration –
It includes the activities of the departments related to food; housing, social security and development activities.
g) Economic administration –
It is concerned with the production and promotion of industries and agriculture.
h) Foreign administration –
It includes the conduct of foreign affairs, diplomacy, international cooperation, etc.
i) Local administration –
It refers to the activities of autonomous local institutions.
The modern state cannot limit its field of activities only to the maintenance of law and order, the dispensation of justice, the collection of income and taxes. The modern state is expected to provide more and more services and comfort to people. This results in tremendous growth both in government responsibly and in the state’s administrative machinery. Naturally, the scope of public administration is extended.