समन्वय क्या है

समन्वय क्या है?

समन्वय संगठन का एक महत्वपूर्ण सिद्धांत है। कोई भी संगठन समन्वय के बिना वांछित उद्देश्य को प्राप्त नहीं कर सकता है। एक नकारात्मक अर्थ में समन्वय का अर्थ है प्रशासन में संघर्ष और अतिव्यापीता को दूर करना। सकारात्मक अर्थों में इसका मतलब किसी संगठन के कई कर्मचारियों के बीच सहयोग और टीमवर्क को सुरक्षित करना है। चार्ल्स वर्थ के अनुसार “समन्वय के उद्देश्य को प्राप्त करने के लिए एक व्यवस्थित संपूर्ण में कई भागों का समन्वय है”। टेरी कहते हैं, “समन्वय एक-दूसरे के हिस्सों का समायोजन है और समय में भागों के आंदोलन और संचालन का है ताकि प्रत्येक पूरे के उत्पाद में अपना अधिकतम योगदान दे सके”।

एल. डी. व्हाइट के अनुसार, प्रभावी समन्वय अच्छे प्रशासन के लिए एक परम आवश्यक है ”।

इस प्रकार समन्वय का अर्थ है व्यवस्था बनाना ताकि संगठन के सभी हिस्से एक साथ परिभाषित लक्ष्यों की ओर खींचे, बिना दोहराव के, बिना अंतराल और संघर्ष के।

संगठन के सिद्धांत

समन्वय दो प्रकार के होते हैं और वे आंतरिक समन्वय और बाहरी समन्वय होते हैं। आंतरिक समन्वय का संबंध किसी संगठन में काम करने वाले व्यक्तियों की गतिविधियों के समन्वय से है और बाहरी समन्वय का संबंध विभिन्न संगठनात्मक इकाइयों की गतिविधियों के समन्वय से है। समन्वय को या तो स्वचालित रूप से या जानबूझकर प्रभावित किया जा सकता है। स्वचालित समन्वय केवल छोटे स्तर के संगठन में संभव है जहां संगठन के प्रमुख प्रत्येक और हर व्यक्ति को जानते हैं। जानबूझकर समन्वय को जबरदस्ती या स्वैच्छिक बनाया जा सकता है। संगठनात्मक पदानुक्रम के माध्यम से जोरदार समन्वय प्राप्त किया जा सकता है। वास्तव में किसी भी संगठन में समन्वय का बड़ा हिस्सा आपसी समायोजन और समझौते से स्वैच्छिक होता है। स्वैच्छिक समन्वय की कुछ महत्वपूर्ण तकनीकें हैं सम्मेलनों, संदर्भ परामर्श और मंजूरी, संगठनात्मक उपकरण जैसे कि इंटरडिपेक्टोरल समितियां, प्रक्रिया और विधियों का मानकीकरण, गतिविधियों का विकेंद्रीकरण और मौखिक और लिखित संचार।

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समन्वय का प्रतिरोध

समन्वय कठिनाइयों से मुक्त नहीं है। गुलिक के अनुसार कुछ परेशानियाँ निम्नलिखित कारकों से उत्पन्न होती हैं। 1) भविष्य की अनिश्चितता। 2) ज्ञान और अनुभव की कमी। 3) ज्ञान और अनुभव का अभाव। 4) नए विचारों और कार्यक्रमों को विकसित करने और अपनाने के क्रमबद्ध तरीकों का अभाव।

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