what do you mean by Communication?
Communication has to be recognized as the first principle of administration. Effective communication is vital to the successful achievement of agency objectives. Millet is regarding communication as “the blood stream of administrative organisation”. Pfiffner considers it “the heart of management”.
According to Tead “the underlying aim of communication is a meeting of minds on common issues”.
Communication is often used in the sense of imparting knowledge or transmitting information. The term, as used here, however, has a wider connotation, and includes interchange of thoughts, partaking ideas, and a sense of participation and sharing. Communication in an organisation may be internal, external and interpersonal. The first deals with relationship between the organisation and its employees. The second is concerned with the relationship of the agency with the public and is called ‘public relations’. The third is related to the relationship among the agency’s employees inter se. Communication has also been classified as “up”. “down”, “across”. ‘up’ communication is achieved by such method as systematic, written and verbal reports of performance and progress, statistical and accounting reports concerning work, written verbal requests for guidance, suggestion and discussions. Means are, thus, provided for higher level to obtain evidence about work problem.
‘Down’ communication is achieved through devices, such as, directives, manuals, written or verbal orders or instructions, staff conferences, budget sanctions and establishment authorization.
Across communication is achieved through exchange of written or verbal information and reports, formal and informal and personal contacts, staff meetings and coordination committees. To aim is to bring together different but related parts of the organisation.
Difficulties and Barriers
The first great difficulty is the complexity of language. Word differences are a big hindrance to mutual understanding. Second barrier is the ideological barriers. Differences in political background, education, and results in different social and political views. Thirdly, lack of a will or desire to communicate is not known. Size and distance may be said to be the fourth barrier of communication. Lastly, there may be lack of definite and recognized means of communication.
According to Millet, there are seven factors necessary to make the communication effective, namely, it should be clear, consistent with the expectation of the recipient, adequate, timely, uniform, and acceptable.