What do you understand by public welfare state?
What do you understand by public welfare state? The situation of development and public welfare is closely related. Establishment of a public welfare state is possible only through development. Therefore, development is a means of establishing a state of public welfare. In general, a state of public welfare refers to a state under which the power of government is exercised not for the welfare of a particular class, but for the welfare of the entire public. The state “public welfare” is a popular term that all countries, especially developing countries, are dedicated to acquiring. Due to the close relationship between development and welfare state, an attempt has been made to explain the public welfare state here.
Public welfare state background
The state was born of historical development and the state developed into the present form after thousands of years. Initially, state affairs were limited. Today, the state deals with all aspects of a person’s life. He performs all political, economic, social, religious, cultural etc. The state cares about the person’s death from birth. It seems that if there is no state, civilization will be destroyed. In the security of the state, we remain completely calm. In France it has been said that you will be born, everyone else will see the prefect, that is, the person’s job is only to take birth, all other states do it themselves or under their supervision. Even through family planning, the state determines whether you will be born or not. All these tasks are entrusted to the state by gradual development.
In ancient times, when the kingdom was in the form of a clan, its function was known only to outside tribes as a “protected state”. As the population of tribes increased, the needs of the individual increased and the importance of property began to be understood, there were disputes among the citizens. Therefore, apart from state security, they started maintaining law and order and providing justice. The state continued to perform similar functions until the end of the 16th century. This is called a “police state”. Due to the Industrial Revolution, large industries were established and the ruling class in the society became the capitalist working class. When the state tried to intervene, they protested. The kingdom of this era was called ‘Ahschaspi Rajya’. But this arrangement did not last long.
Later, for the protection of the working class and poor society, the state had to start many positive works, such as schools, hospitals, road construction, child welfare work etc. This is called “service status”. In the modern era, war, new forms of economic development, the need for the development of developing nations, etc. have made the states a purely economic person. Economic development cannot be possible unless the state works alone and the newly independent and developing states are afraid of returning to economic imperialism. For this reason, Raj has started doing more and more tasks himself. The nature of the state also changed with the increase in works. Until now, it has been increasingly recognized that states should give greater freedom to the individual so that the person can achieve and develop happiness. But the man of the state was private. As a result, a communist system was born, under which independence was abolished. Therefore, almost all democracies in the world decided to work for the protection and compliance of the individual through a commitment between freedom and equality. This type of state is called a ‘welfare state’. In this we work for the welfare of the entire public.
The idea of a state of public welfare that works for the benefit of the entire public is nothing new. The concept of Ramrajya prevalent in India in ancient times symbolizes a state in which it tries to develop the personality of each person independently. Although Indian political thinkers proposed the divine emergence of royalty, they also described in detail the duties of kings and their basic idea is that all actions should be done by the king from the point of view of public welfare. Memoirs of Mahabharata, Parashar, Muni and Kautilya. This is clearly seen in Adi’s ideology. The Mahabharata states that “The king who does not treat his subjects like his sons and does not strive for his prudent progress is a part of hell.” Almost equally, the concept prevailed in the city states of Greece. The state has been considered by Plato and Aristotle as a moral organization, which aims to act not in the interest of one class, but in the interest of the majority of citizens. Although the idea did not appear in medieval times, the ideals of Thomas Penn, Thomas Jefferson, Kant, Green, and Benthan revisited the 18th and 19th centuries to see the states working for the good of all their citizens. went.
What do you understand by public welfare state? Therefore, the notion of the status of public welfare in its original form has always existed, but the sense in which this notion is used at the present time is a product of present circumstances. It can be called the gift of modern industrialization. The notion of a public welfare state has been affected due to the following reasons:
This revolution resulted in the invention of machines and technology and the creation of large industrial organizations. The capitalists’ monopoly over production and distribution was established. Workers started being exploited. Simultaneously, the state had to program for social reforms arising in the society to control production and distribution.
Reaction to individualism.
The individualist “Yad Bhavam Policy” was adopted by most of the states of the world in the late 18th and early 19th centuries and according to this policy the state’s scope of work was limited. The states of Europe became more prosperous as a result of adopting this policy. At the same time, the centralization of property began in a few hands. On the one hand, a great deal of wealth was generated, and on the other hand, there was a working class that did not hold a designated livelihood despite working beyond its capacity. In such a situation, dissatisfaction arose in most of the existing system and this dissatisfaction was expressed by academics such as Skekin, William Gadwin, etc. It was sued by intellectuals that instead of viewing the plight of their majority class as litigation by the state, proactive steps should be taken to improve their condition.
Boom of marxist dialogue
Karl Marx and Angeles published the 1848 ‘Communist Manifesto’ against the individualist system. Inspired by the communist ideology, in 1917 there was a successful revolution by the proletariat in Soviet Russia and a systematic communist system was established in Russia. This communist system was a cause of fear for the capitalist system prevailing in the country. In this situation, capitalist countries began to rethink their system and concluded that some fundamental changes in the current system are necessary. To avoid the growing influence of communism, he tried to make his governance system beneficial.
Impact of Evolutionary Socialism
What do you understand by public welfare state? Another form of socialism in the nineteenth and twentieth centuries is the increasing influence of evolutionary socialism. The aim of this ideology was to keep the country’s economy socially organized by staying away from the path of revolution and violence through the state, spreading peaceful and constitutional means and socialist ideas through education. Evolutionary socialism, in a state of inferiority. Efforts should be made to improve the sections of society. The state of public welfare was a natural consequence of this trend.
Franchise and Democracy Development.
At the end of the 18th century, democratic states such as Britain, etc. They had a limited voting system, which ignored the interests of the lower classes. Therefore, with the Reform Act of 1832, the franchise began to expand in Britain and in the twentieth century, franchise for adults was adopted in countries such as India. It became necessary for these states to pay attention to the position of their majority voters. To improve the condition of the lower classes, it was necessary to expand the reach of the state and, therefore, the trend of public welfare was adopted. Simultaneously, people should be happy and dignified in moral and social life by providing many facilities in political, social, cultural and economic spheres, while providing a broader sense of democracy. In this way, the public welfare trend was adopted to give realization to democracy.
Apart from the above elements, most states of the world have adopted the notion of public welfare as a result of war, fear of economic imperialism, planned development etc. What do you understand by public welfare state?