Meaning of the organization
The administration is a cooperative effort of a group of people in pursuit of a common goal. It is necessary that this group be organized to achieve the desired objectives. In other words, the organization is an essential element of the administration. It facilitates the proper use of men, material and money for the realization of the defined purpose. Therefore, there can be no administration without organization. Dimock said: “The organization is the basic tool by which the administrative process remains operational.” Then, the organization is prior to each administrative action, since no administrative action can be implemented without an organization.
The term organization is used in at least three different meanings, namely:
- The act of designing the administrative structure,
- Both the design and construction of the structure, that is, the planning of the structure scheme and the appointment of appropriate personnel for it, and
- The resulting administrative structure itself.
“Organization”, “is the job of connecting interdependent parts so that each one has a special function, act, office or relationship with the whole.”
In the words of L D. White, “The organization is a staff arrangement to facilitate the achievement of some agreed purpose by assigning roles and responsibilities.”
According to Pfiffner, “the organization consists of the relationship from individual to individual and a group to groups that are so related as to cause an orderly division of labor.”
According to Luther Gullick, “The organization is the formal authority structure through which the subdivision of work for the defined objective is organized, defined and coordinated.”
In Milward’s opinion, “The structure of the organization is a pattern of interrelated positions connected by delegated authority line.”
According to Gladden, “the organization cares about the pattern of relationship between people in a company, built in a way that fulfills the role of the entrepreneur.”
Characteristics of the organization.
Nicholas Henry has summarized the characteristics of the organization as follows:
- are complex and determined human activities
- are characterized by a secondary relationship
- have specialized and limited objectives
- are characterized by a sustained cooperative activity
- are integrated into a broader social system
- They provide services and products to their environment.
- depend on the exchange with your environment.
According to L D. White, an organization has three main elements, namely people, combined efforts and a common purpose.
In the old days, the organization was simple because human society was in its primitive stage. The relationship pattern in the old simple organizations was different from what it is today. There have been many factors at work that have influenced and added to the complexity of modern organizations. They include (a) the release of the individual in our philosophy and social policies; (b) the development of new interpretations of the nature of human cooperation; (c) the wide range of objectives of the organization; (d) the movement towards the specialization of tasks.
It is important that organizations are social entities and, as such, are subject to the same types of influences, pressures, prejudices and prejudices as any of the social organizations.