Commonly used to establish causal relationships between two sets of events or varieties in a controlled environment. It is a carefully regulated process in which changes are made in one factor and its effect is studied in another factor, while the other related factors remain constant. In the experiment, the causal event is being altered or manipulated. Impact is the behavior that changes due to manipulation.
Any stimulus or event that varies, takes different values and can be measured in one variable. There are many types of variables. The independent variable is the variable that the researcher separates or modifies in the experiment. It is the effect of this change in the variable that the researcher wishes to see or write down in the study.
The dependent variable represents the phenomenon that the researcher wishes to explain. A change in the dependent variable is expected to be assured by a change in the independent variable.
In this method, the in-depth study of a particular case is emphasized. A case study employs a number of methods to gather information from various respondents, such as interviews, observations and psychological tests that may be associated with the case in some way and provide useful information. With the help of case studies, psychologists have investigated to understand the feelings, fantasies, hopes, apprehensions, traumatic experiences, parents’ education, etc., that help to understand the mind and behavior of a person. Case studies provide a narrative or detailed description of the events that occur in a person’s life.
The case study provides a detailed description of people’s lives. However, one must be very cautious in generalizing as a basis for individual cases. The problem of validity in a single case study is quite challenging. It is recommended that many researchers collect information using multiple strategies from different sources of information. Careful planning of data collection is also very essential. During the data collection process, the researcher is required to maintain a series of tests to connect different data sources that impact research questions.