Definition of Department
Solid foundations of management lie within departments. These are the departments that do the basic work. It is here where the weapons that provide the services of the executive power to citizens are found. All administrative operations are carried out by high and low-grade officers and employees working in various departments. Therefore, the study of organization and internal administration is of great importance in public administration.
In fact, the word ‘department’ means a large or complete part. In technical administration terminology, however, the term has a special meaning. It means the largest block or companies below the CEO, into which all government work is divided. Therefore, a department is the basic organizational units of administration, which are responsible for carrying out the functions of the government. The department is responsible and subordinate to the Executive Director.
There are four different principles or bases on which a department is organized. These reasons are:
- Functional or objective theory
- Professional process or principles
- Client or person
- Geographical theory
When the department is organized according to the nature of the work or the purpose, it is organized according to the functional principle. Examples of such departments are: health, human resource development, defense, commerce and industry, etc.
The department can be built on the basis of technical skills involved in job performance. Thus, the Department of Law, the Department of Space and the Department of Ocean Development are examples of this.
When a department is set up to solve the special problems of a section of the community, the base of that department is said to be the customer or service provider. Therefore, the SC \ ST department is a customer-organized department.
When the region or geographical area serves as the basis for the organization of a department, it is called the geographical principle of departmental organization. Therefore, the base of the Department of Foreign Affairs is geographic. Departments can vary according to their size, structure, nature of work, internal relationships, etc.
Table and board
The direction of the department is equally important as the basis for the organization of the departments. If the head of the department is invested in a single person, then it is called an office-type organization. Conversely, if the head of the department is a body of jointly responsible individuals, it is called a board-type organization. The board is sometimes known as a ‘commission’. A commission is a group of members who not only have a duty to function collectively as a board, but also individually act as heads of organizational units established for the performance of administrative work. They have been made. There are two types of departments in India. In general, ministers head various departments such as education, defense, agriculture, etc. But some departments are headed by a board. For example. Railway Board, Revenue Board, Electricity Board, etc.