The interview is, in a sense, an oral questionnaire. It is a formal meeting between two or more people with a specific purpose and theme.
The interview is an important technique to obtain personal information of the subject in face-to-face contact. Based on the results of the interview, most of the selection is made for different jobs and admission to several courses.
The interviews are of two types: unstructured and structured. In an unstructured interview, the interviewer is free to ask the candidate any questions about any topic relevant to the situation. The main condition of this type of interview is that a perfect relationship be established with the subjects so that they can freely express their feelings.
In a structured interview, a systematic predetermined approach is adopted and all subjects are asked similar questions in a uniform manner. In general, a list of questions is prepared in advance and all subjects must answer these previously planned questions.
Types of Interview
- Wise function: diagnosis, clinical and research
- Number of participants (individual or group)
- Role of the interviewer and the interviewee (non-managerial, focused and profound)
- Non-directive (uncontrolled, unguided, unstructured)
Characteristics of an interview
(I) Person to person relationships
(II) A means of communication between them
(III) An awareness by at least one person about the purpose of the interview.
Steps in the interview
- Preparing for the interview and establishing a good relationship.
- The development of the problem.
- The joint solution of the problem.
- The closing of the interview.
- Evaluation of the interview.
- Follow-up of the interview.
- A good relationship must be established. Rapport is a technical term used to denote feelings of friendship, security and mutual trust between the researcher and the subject.
- The investigator should try to alleviate the fear of the subject by encouraging him to keep the information confidential.
- The researcher tries to relieve tension in the subject’s mind with humorous talks.
- All evidence of fatigue, stress, irritation and anxiety should be avoided.
- In general, the interview should be limited to hand issues.
- Thinking about a topic should be questioned.
- Before the end of the interview, the subject should have developed the feeling of having a satisfactory and generally useful experience.
- The interview must be completely terminated and, therefore, must be planned, not sudden and not indefinite.
- The highlights of the interview should be registered immediately.
- There is a face-to-face relationship and, therefore, a congenital atmosphere for data collection.
- The information is highly reliable.
- Confidential data can also be collected.
- You can even get unconscious data.
- The collected data can be recorded and used for future purposes.
- It consumes a lot of time, therefore it is expensive.
- Requires expertise from the interviewer.
- There is a problem of interviewer bias.
- The interviewee may not reveal his true feelings.
- It is not applicable to all types of subjects.