Where is someone called learning?
Learning occurs in many ways. There are some methods used in acquiring simple reactions, while other methods are used in acquiring complex reactions. The simplest type of learning is conditioning. Two types of conditioning have been identified. The first is called classical conditioning and the second is called instrumental / operational conditioning. In addition, we have (trial and error learning and understanding learning) observational learning, cognitive learning, verbal learning, concept learning and skill learning.
Types of learning
Psychologists have identified different types of learning. We have different types of learning. We learn different skills, adopting different types of learning. How does learning happen at different levels?
Learning is explained by a group of psychologists in the duration of the stimulation and the response. They are known as behaviorists, stimulation is an impulse that we receive from the external environment from within. The answer is our encouragement we receive. Pavlov and Skinner have described two types of learning based on stimulus response linkages. Pavlov called this Skinner’s classic conditioning and operational conditioning.
1. Trial and Error Learning (Edward Lee Thorndike)
The famous psychologist Edward Lee Thornadike (1834 – 1949) was the creator of the theory of trial-and-error learning based on the findings of his experiment with the cat.
For example, in one of his experiments, he placed a hungry cat in a puzzle box. There was only one door that could be opened by connecting a headlight correctly. A fish was placed out of the box.
The smell of the fish was achieved as a strong reason to leave the hungry cat’s belly.
In another test, the process was repeated. The cat was hungry and in the same place in the same puzzle in the box. The fish and its scent again served as a reason to get out of the box, again making random movements and frantic attempts. But this time it took less time to get out. In subsequent tests, such incorrect responses, bites, claws, and bumps were gradually reduced, and each successful test took the cat less time. In due course, he was in a position to manipulate the latch as soon as it was placed in the box. In this way, the cat gradually learned the art of opening the door. The experiment completes the following steps in the learning process.
- Driving: In the present experiment, he was hungry and accelerated when he saw the food.
- Objective: take the food out of the box.
- Block: the cat was confined in the box with the door closed.
- Random movements: the cat constantly tried to get out of the box without knowing it.
- Selection: Gradually, the cat identified the correct way to manipulate the latch. He chose the correct way to manipulate the latch using his random movements.
- Determination: Finally, the cat learned the correct way to open the door by removing all the wrong answers and correcting only the correct answer. Now he was able to open the door without error or, in other words, he learned the correct way to open the door.
Based on the aforementioned use of the main theoretical principles that form the basis of Thornadike’s theory of learning and, therefore, summarized in the discussion. Learning involves trial and error or selection and correction. Learning is the result of the formation of connectionism. Learning is incremental, not practical; Learning is direct, not mediated by ideas. The experiment completes the following steps in the learning process.
2.Classical conditioning (Ivan Pavlov)
This type of education was first investigated by Ivan p. Pavlov did it. He was primarily interested in the physiology of digestion. During his study he noticed that the dogs, in which he was doing his experiments, began to secrete saliva as soon as he saw the empty plate on which the food was served. As you should know, saliva discharge is a reactive reaction to food or something in the mouth. Pavlov designed an experiment to understand this process in detail in which the dogs were used once again.
In the first phase, a dog was placed in a box and beaten. The dog stayed in the box for a while. This was repeated several times on different days. Meanwhile, simple surgery was performed and one end of a tube was inserted into the dogs’ jaw and the other end was inserted into a measuring cup.
The experimental setup is illustrated. In the second phase of the experiment, the dog was kept hungry and was placed at one end of the tube in the jaw and finally in a glass jar. They rang a bell and the dog was served food (meat powder) soon after. The dog was allowed to eat it. Whenever meat powder was presented for the next few days, it was preceded by the sound of a bell. After several of these tests, a test test was introduced, in which everything was identical to the previous tests, except that no food followed the sound of the bell. The dog still greeted the sound of the bell, anticipating the presentation of meat dust as the sound of the bell joined him. As a result of this relationship between the bell and the food, the dog acquired a new reaction, namely saliva from the sound of the bell. This has been called conditioning.
3.Operator Conditioning (Skinner)
This type of conditioning is first investigated by B.F. Skinner did it. Skinner studied the phenomenon of voluntary reactions when an organism operates in the environment. He called the operators. Operators are behaviors or reactions that are voluntarily emitted by animals and humans and are under their control. The term operator is used because the organism operates in the environment; Conditioning of driver behavior is called driver conditioning.
Skinner experimented with white mice. He kept the mice in the cage for a while without feeding them. The rat was hungry and was looking for food.
In its random movements here and there, the rat inside the cage hit a lever. The rat was fed when it hit the lever. For the random hit of the lever, the food was given as reinforcement. Gradually the rat learned to hit the lever every time it was hungry. Now in this process, the excretory response, that is, the random hit of the liver is reinfected with food and the hit of the liver becomes normal behavior, that is, the rat collides with the liver and receives food when food is needed. . The rat acts carelessly on the environment and this contingency operation initially becomes a normal operation upon re-entry for a contingency operation.
Operational conditioning is also known as instrumental conditioning, since reinforcement becomes the normal behavior for contingent behavior. Common behavior is learned behavior.