Educational Philosophy Mahatma Gandhi :- Gandhiji has kept all aspects of life in mind in his education philosophy. Although he did not write any treatise on education, but from time to time expressed his views in the meetings and in many articles of ‘Harijan’. According to him, it is necessary to inculcate behavioral skills in the child through education. To become tactful, the child has to take shelter of handwork, experience, experimentation, service and love. According to Gandhiji, “An education which does not purify the mind, does not create a means of subsistence and does not inculcate the courage and strength to be independent, however much wealth of information, logical skill and language skills are present in that education, it is not true education. “
Objective of education:- It is necessary to inculcate the quality of self-reliance in a person through education. When the child finishes schooling, then he can stand on his feet, for this he will have to acquire vocational proficiency. If the child remains useless even after getting education, then it is the fault of education itself. Getting skill in business is not only beneficial for the country and society, but it is also necessary for the individual himself. From this point of view, Gandhiji supported vocational purpose and education to earn a living.
Gandhiji also paid attention to culture. Giving a lecture at Kasturba Balikashram, New Delhi on 22 April 1946, Gandhiji said, “I give more importance to the cultural side than the literary side of education.” Culture is the primary object and basis.
According to Gandhiji, the aim of education should also be spiritual freedom. Like the ancient Indian sages, Gandhiji also used to say that learning should always be for liberation. ‘Sa Vidya or Vimuktaye’ was also his ideal. Spiritual freedom should be attained through education. The attainment of spiritual freedom leads to knowledge of God and self-realization.
Character development is also an important aim of education. In his autobiography, he wrote, “I have considered character building as a suitable cornerstone of education, I have always given first place to the culture of the heart or character building.” According to Gandhiji, education means the highest development of body, mind and soul. He considered the all-round development of the child as the aim of education.
Curriculum by Mahatma Gandhi :- Gandhiji emphasized on ‘action-oriented curriculum’. In his view, the curriculum should not be such that it leads only to intellectual development. Intellectual development can be done only through literary subjects, but physical and spiritual development is not possible from them. Physical and spiritual development have been neglected in the prevailing education.
Gandhiji gave an important place to craft in his new course of action. The craft can be anyone. In the view of Indian society, one of the crafts can be chosen from agriculture, spinning-weaving, cardboard work, wood work, metal work etc. He showed special interest towards spinning and weaving.
Mother tongue was given a prominent place in the curriculum. Mother tongue was also accepted as the medium of instruction. Mathematics, social studies, drawing and music must also be included in the curriculum. General science was also included in his curriculum. General science includes the general elements of biology, physiology, chemistry, health science, natural studies, physical, cultural and constellation knowledge.
Gandhiji confined his course to primary and junior level only. According to him there should be same type of curriculum for boys and girls till the fifth standard. After this, instead of general science, the girls should be taught home science.
Teaching Method by Mahatma Gandhi- Gandhiji wanted to bring such a teaching process, in which the gap between the student and the teacher is reduced. Students should not be passive listeners but as active investigators, observers and experimenters, because in the traditional practice there is no contact between teacher and student. The teacher leaves after giving a lecture. Students sit as passive listeners. He was opposed to this type of faulty method.
Gandhiji laid great emphasis on the mother tongue as the medium of instruction in teaching methods. On the other hand he also wanted that the teaching should be ‘craft centered’ rather than bookish. He considered craft not only as a means of entertainment but also as a means of character building. He emphasized on craft centered teaching because it has emphasis on action and experience. The essential technique of this type of teaching method is coordination. Education of different subjects will not be done as separate subjects but as integrated knowledge.
Gandhiji has given spiritual and moral importance to ‘labour’ in his teaching methods. Giving importance to labor to remove the poverty of the country, he wanted to make a radical change in education.
Basic Education – The education system imposed on Indians during the foreign rule was not all-round. The purpose of this education was to make Babu to run the government machine. The educated youth who came out of this system would have been Indian in body, but foreign in heart and mind. Mahatma Gandhi thought that even if political swaraj is achieved, social and economic swaraj cannot come in the country unless education is made according to national needs. Therefore, he put the philosophy of basic education in front of the country.
Basic Education – The following were made the basic principles of the scheme
- Free and compulsory education for seven years
- Medium of instruction Mother tongue
- Industry Focused Education
Gandhiji called this education ‘Basic Education’ or ‘Nai Talim’. This education is called by many other names, such as Wardha Yojana, Basic Education, National Education, Elementary Education, Basic Education etc. A conference of educationists was held in Wardha to consider this education.
The scheme of basic education was implemented in 1938 in those provinces where Congress ministries were established. Seeing the interest of the provinces in this direction, the Central Government also took steps in this direction. The Central Education Advisory Council constituted by the Central Government, the then Chief Minister of Bombay, Shri B. Appointed a committee under the chairmanship of D. Kher. The following year Mr. The second committee was appointed under the chairmanship of D. Kher. Both the Kher committees studied the Wardha plan and made several suggestions to improve it, the main ones being the following:
- First of all Vardha education scheme should be implemented in rural areas.
- Basic education should be made compulsory for children between the age of six to fourteen years.
- Children should be allowed to attend other types of schools at the age of eleven years or after the fifth standard.
- The medium of instruction should be the mother tongue.
- Education of Hindi is compulsory and its script should be both Arabic and Devanagari. needed .
- Not taking external examination, only internal examination should be taken.
The Central Education Advisory Council accepted the recommendations of the Kher Committees. Vidya Mandir Training School was established in Wardha in 1938. In the same year, these training centers were established in Orissa, Bihar, Uttar Pradesh, Kashmir, Mumbai and Madhya Pradesh and Basic Education Board was also formed. The old schools were converted into basic schools. In 1938-39, a training college was opened in Wardha, in which arrangements were made for the initiation of teachers of normal school and inspectors of basic education. Three training centers were further established in Madhya Pradesh, Chennai and Mumbai. Fourteen training centers were also opened in the country. But after 1940, the progress of basic education fell somewhat. In 1945, a national conference was held in Sevagram, in which a committee of experts was formed. The committee suggested improvements in the curriculum. In January 1947, the All India Education Conference was held in Delhi, in which educationist Maulana Abdul Kalam Azad emphasized on accelerating the pace of compulsory education. A committee was formed to determine the program of basic education. The recommendations of this committee were accepted.
Basic Education in Independence India – After independence, many efforts were made to spread basic education widely. New basic schools were opened. The basic method was also changed. Basic was considered as the medium of education. Now other industries have also been included. Paper work, gardening, basket making, cottage and small scale industries etc. were also accepted as the medium of basic education. In 1948 itself, the Central Advisory Council, while advising the Government of India, drew the attention of the Government to the following points-
- Establishment of new basic schools.
- Conversion of existing elementary schools into basic schools.
- To provide training facilities to basic teachers.
- To devise a simple and cheap way of building basic school buildings.
In the first five year plan, it was emphasized that apart from rural areas, basic education should be developed in urban areas also. In 1954-55, a new scheme named ‘Basic Shiksha Prasar’ was started. Following are the salient features of this scheme
- Molding the existing elementary schools in the BASIC system.
- Establishment of new basic schools.
- Establishment of new basic training institutes.
- Molding of the existing training institutes in the basic system.
- Introduction of teaching of handicrafts in elementary schools.
- Training of teachers of handicrafts.
- To arrange the course material for the basic schools.
The Central Education Advisory Council has constituted a Standing Committee for Basic Education, whose function is to advise the Council regarding Basic Education. In the Second Plan period, many programs were adopted for the promotion of basic education. Many junior basic schools were converted into senior basic schools. Simple elementary schools and middle schools were also adapted to the system of basic schools. Public school conferences have also shown interest in basic education.
India has considered basic education as a part of national education. Many five year plans have ended. In these schemes, only the system of basic education has been approved for the provision of compulsory and free education. Still, the progress in basic education was not as much as had been expected.
Immediate Education System- Gandhiji developed a new education system only after getting upset with the then education system, which we call Basic Education. He looked at the defects of the then education system and saw that it is a completely unsuitable system for India. The main defects of the education system which was going on before basic education were as follows:
- away from life
- narrow ideal 3. only theoretical
- Lack of Universal Education 5. Wastage and Blockage 6. Lack of Compulsory Education
- Lack of free education
- Intellectual (one-sided) development only
- Lack of self-reliance
- Mother of Classification
- Lack of sociability and citizenship
- Disabling Education
- Social Exploitation
- Hate labor
- Ignoring the Village
- Neglect of mother tongue
- Contrary to the psychological principles of children
- Neglect of female education
- Ignoring Indian Culture
Gandhism – The word Gandhism was used by some people even during Gandhiji’s time. Some people are still using the word Gandhism. In the year 1936, Gandhiji wrote about Gandhism in this way – “There is no such thing as Gandhism and I do not have to leave any sect behind me. I have discovered a new principle or a new principle, I do not claim that. So I have tried in my own way to relate only what is eternal truth to my daily life and questions. The opinions I have decided and the decisions I have reached are not final. You guys don’t call it Gandhism. There is nothing like an argument in this.
Gandhiji was no longer a supporter of Gandhism. The famous Gandhian thinker Kishorelal Mashruwala has said that Gandhism is not an indicator of the system of any social system but a method of functioning. The systematic form of Gandhi’s thoughts can be determined on the basis of some of Gandhi’s principles. The main characteristics of Gandhism are truth, non-violence, service, absence of untouchability, spirituality, service to the country, firmness of character, goal setting, purity of means, vow of service to the country, principle of trust, Satyagraha etc.